segunda-feira, abril 13, 2009

How to solve it (Pólya)

Por acaso... encontrei o livro inteirinho aqui.





Já existem edições mais recentes do que a minha.
O original data de 1945.



How to Solve It:A New Aspect of Mathematical Method
G. Polya
One of Princeton University Press's Notable Centenary Titles.
With a New Foreword by John Conway
2004

http://press.princeton.edu/titles/669.html
A perennial bestseller by eminent mathematician G. Polya, How to Solve It will show anyone in any field how to think straight.
In lucid and appealing prose, Polya reveals how the mathematical method of demonstrating a proof or finding an unknown can be of help in attacking any problem that can be "reasoned" out--from building a bridge to winning a game of anagrams. Generations of readers have relished Polya's deft--indeed, brilliant--instructions on stripping away irrelevancies and going straight to the heart of the problem.
In this best-selling classic, George Pólya revealed how the mathematical method of demonstrating a proof or finding an unknown can be of help in attacking any problem that can be "reasoned" out--from building a bridge to winning a game of anagrams. Generations of readers have relished Pólya's deft instructions on stripping away irrelevancies and going straight to the heart of a problem. How to Solve It popularized heuristics, the art and science of discovery and invention. It has been in print continuously since 1945 and has been translated into twenty-three different languages.
Pólya was one of the most influential mathematicians of the twentieth century. He made important contributions to a great variety of mathematical research: from complex analysis to mathematical physics, number theory, probability, geometry, astronomy, and combinatorics. He was also an extraordinary teacher--he taught until he was ninety--and maintained a strong interest in pedagogical matters throughout his long career. In addition to How to Solve It, he published a two-volume work on the topic of problem solving, Mathematics of Plausible Reasoning, also with Princeton.
Pólya is one of the most frequently quoted mathematicians, and the following statements from How to Solve It make clear why: "My method to overcome a difficulty is to go around it." "Geometry is the science of correct reasoning on incorrect figures." "In order to solve this differential equation you look at it till a solution occurs to you."
Reviews:
"Every prospective teacher should read it. In particular, graduate students will find it invaluable. The traditional mathematics professor who reads a paper before one of the Mathematical Societies might also learn something from the book: 'He writes a, he says b, he means c; but it should be d.' "--E. T. Bell, Mathematical Monthly
"[This] elementary textbook on heuristic reasoning, shows anew how keen its author is on questions of method and the formulation of methodological principles. Exposition and illustrative material are of a disarmingly elementary character, but very carefully thought out and selected."--Herman Weyl, Mathematical Review
"I recommend it highly to any person who is seriously interested in finding out methods of solving problems, and who does not object to being entertained while he does it."--Scientific Monthly
"Any young person seeking a career in the sciences would do well to ponder this important contribution to the teacher's art."--A. C. Schaeffer, American Journal of Psychology
"Every mathematics student should experience and live this book"--Mathematics Magazine

5 comentários:

IC disse...

Pólya! O nome é-me bastante familiar, mas já não consigo lembrar-me do conteúdo do que li dele. Tinha a ver com a resolução de problemas. Mas a minha memória é péssima (pior que péssima!) Sempre achei que era problema de nascença. :)
Beijinhos

Fátima Campilho disse...

Oi, T
Em tempo de lhe desejar uma Páscoa abençoada.
Abraços,
FC

Luis Neves disse...

Olá 3za,
Hoje assinei a seguinte Petição online, "Pelo direito das crianças a brincar"
http://www.petitiononline.com/pdcb2008/

Como acho que é muito necessário e justo alertar para este problema, e que deviam dar explicações para estas políticas, envio-te a mensagem.

O texto da petição começa assim,
" Este ano ficámos surpreendidos com o regresso à escola dos nossos filhos, amigos, vizinhos. Descobrimos que agora uma criança com 6 anos de idade estará obrigatoriamente 8 horas numa sala de aula, exactamente o horário de trabalho de um adulto.
Para reduzir custos, cortar no público e garantir que o privado continua a receber subsídios directos e indirectos, as câmaras municipais decidiram, sem consultar ninguém, que as actividades extracurriculares passavam de facto a ser curriculares. Ou seja, antes uma criança tinha aulas até às 15 horas e depois actividades facultativas extracurriculares e agora essas actividades são colocadas no meio das aulas."

3za disse...

Exactamente IC... um texto em algumas passagens extremamente lúcido e actual... :)
Fátima, espero que a tua Páscoa tenha sido doce...
Beijinhos

3za disse...

Luís, obrigada pela partilha. Vou ler...